pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort
with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by
cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior,
beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts,
as indicated by five (or more) of the following:
Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference) odd beliefs
or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with
subcultural norms (e.g., superstitiousness, belief in clairvoyance,
telepathy, or "sixth sense"; in children and adolescents,
bizarre fantasies or preoccupations).
Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions odd thinking
and speech (e.g., vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate,
Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation inappropriate or constricted affect
behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar.
Lack of close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and
tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative judgments
about self .
Does not occur exclusively
during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder With Psychotic
Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental
The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of
a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical
Note: If criteria are met prior to the onset of Schizophrenia, add
"Premorbid," e.g., "Schizotypal Personality Disorder
have similar or even the same symptom. The clinician, therefore,
in his diagnostic attempt has to differentiate against the following
disorders which he needs to rule out to establish a precise diagnosis.
The cause is unknown,
but there is an increased incidence in relatives of schizophrenics.
Some people may
be helped by antipsychotic medications, but in many cases therapy
is preferred. Schizotypal patients rarely initiate treatment for their
particular disorder, seeking relief from depressive symptoms instead.
Some people may be helped by antipsychotic medications, but in many
cases therapy is preferred. Patients severely afflicted with the disorder
may require hospitalization to help them form social contacts and
thereby overcome fears of relationships as well as to provide therapy.
Schizotypal Personality Disorder patients do not often demonstrate
significant progress. Treatment should therefore help patients establish
a satisfying solitary existence.
and Psychotherapy [ See
Therapy Section ]:
a “cognitive-behavioral” treatment approach can allow
Schizotypal Personality Disorder patients to remedy some of their
odd thoughts and behaviors. Recognizing abnormalities by viewing videotapes
and improving speech habits with the help of a therapist are two effective
methods of treatment.
Psychopharmacology Section ] :
be used for treatment of this disorder's more acute phases of psychosis.
These phases are likely to manifest themselves during times of extreme
stress or life events with which they cannot adequately cope. Psychosis
is usually transitory, though, and should effectively resolve with
the prescription of an appropriate anti-psychotic.