Coordination Disorders (DCD) also know as developmental dyspraxia,
are characterized as being "clumsy" or "awkward".
Children with developmental coordination disorder have difficulties
with motor coordination as compared to other children of the same
age. These children have difficulties in mastering gross motor coordination
tasks such as crawling, walking, jumping, standing on one foot, catching
a ball and fine coordination task such as tying shoelaces. Some children
also demonstrate expressive speech problems.
feature of Developmental Coordination Disorder is a marked impairment
in the development of motor coordination.
Performance in daily activities that require motor coordination is
substantially below that expected given the person's chronological
age and measured intelligence. This may be manifested by marked delays
in achieving motor milestones (e.g., walking, crawling, sitting),
dropping things, "clumsiness," poor performance in sports,
or poor handwriting.
in Criterion A significantly interferes with academic achievement
or activities of daily living.
is not due to a general medical condition (e.g., cerebral
palsy, hemiplegia, or muscular dystrophy) and does not meet criteria
for a Pervasive Developmental Disorder.
Retardation is present, the motor difficulties are in excess of
those usually associated with it.
of Disorders which include:
Expressive Language Disorder
Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder
associated with Developmental Coordination Disorder include delays
in other non-motor milestones. Associated disorders may include Phonological
Disorder, Expressive Language
Disorder, and Mixed
Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder. Prevalence of Developmental
Coordination Disorder has been estimated to be as high as 6% for children
in the age range of 5 -11 years. Course Recognition of Developmental
Coordination Disorder usually occurs when the child first attempts
such tasks as running, holding a knife and fork, buttoning clothes,
or playing ball games. The course is variable. In some cases, lack
of coordination continues through adolescence and adulthood.
have similar symptoms. The clinician, therefore, in his diagnostic
attempt has to differentiate against the following disorders which
need to be ruled out to establish a precise diagnosis.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Traumatic Brain Injury.
Mild Cerebral Palsy.
Decreased Visual Acuity.
The etiology is
unknown but several lines of evidence suggest that it arises as a
result of some form of central nervous system pathology.
There is no known cure for PDD.
Medications are used to address certain behavioral problems; therapy
for children with PDD should be specialized according to the child's
specific needs. Some children with PDD benefit from specialized classrooms
in which the class size is small and instruction is given on a one-to-one
basis. Others function well in standard special education classes
or regular classes with support.
therapists, physiotherapists and receiving additional assistance at
school can all help the child cope.