Reading Disorder (DRD) or Dyslexia
is defect of the brains higher cortical processing of symbols. Children
with DRD may have trouble rhyming and separating the sounds in spoken
As measured by a standardized tests, the patient's ability to read
(accuracy or comprehension) is substantially less than you would
expect considering age, intelligence and education. This deficiency
materially impedes academic achievement or daily living.
in Expressive Language and Speech Discrimination are usually present.
Expressive Writing Disorder is often present.
Visual Perceptual Deficits are seen in only about 10% of cases.
Disruptive Behavior Disorders may also be present, particularly
in older children and adolescents.
Some disorders have similar or even the same symptoms. The clinician,
therefore, in his/her diagnostic attempt has to differentiate against
the following disorders which need to be ruled out to establish a
Dyslexia is a
specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is
characterized by difficulties with accurate and / or fluent word recognition
and by poor spelling abilities. These difficulties typically result
from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often
unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities. Secondary consequences
may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading
experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
Dyslexia in the Pre-school Child
Delay or difficulty
in development of clear speech and a tendency to jumble words and
phrases over some time.
dressing efficiently, tying shoe laces, and putting clothes on in
the right order.
and difficulty with co-ordination.
such as when stories are read to them.
associate sounds with words.
of similar difficulties.
Not all dyslexic
children show these all these signs. Many small children make these
same mistakes and should not cause concern where any of these occur
occasionally. Dyslexia is likely when difficulties are severe and
persist over a number of years, or where there are several such difficulties
in a milder form.
learn the alphabet or the sounds represented by the letters.
read except for a very few simple words.
put sounds together to make words.
use a pencil to write properly.
right from left.
with tying shoelaces, dressing
with co-ordinated activities.
and poor concentration.
in academic subjects compared with classmates.
often leading to behavioral problems or becoming withdrawn and quiet.
learn multiplication tables.
follow a number of instructions or remember more than one thing
at a time.
and poor concentration.
down oral instructions.
of self-confidence and increasing frustration.
studying for and coping with exams.
Slowed by reading
difficulties, most work takes very much longer than average.
with spelling, writing. Inconsistent in what they seem to know.
read inaccurately and without comprehension.
in learning foreign languages.
continue in further education have usually developed strategies
to get to grips with their problems. Most students will have identified
a number of subjects at which they may excel. They often have the
advantage of superior practical skills (e.g. woodwork, art or crafts).
Many dyslexics progress to university or any other chosen field
without discrimination or difficulty
Genetic and neurobiological research essential confirms psychological
research in this area. Family studies show a reading disorder is heritable,
aggregates in families, and probably reflects autosomal dominant transmission.
The brains of individuals with reading disorders are organized somewhat
differently and appear to process the phonological information in
a less efficient, more diffuse manner.
Remedial instruction has remained the best approach to this type
of reading disorder therefore, learning disorders are treated with
specialized educational methods. In addition to special classroom
instruction at school, students with learning disorders frequently
benefit from individualized tutoring which focuses on their specific