This is a rare
disorder characterized by repetitive muscle movements and vocal outbursts.
The main diagnostic criteria is as follows:
time during the illness, though not necessarily at the same time, the
patient has had both of:
At least one vocal tic (A tic is a motor movement or vocalization
that is nonrhythmic, rapid, repeated, stereotyped and sudden) and
Multiple motor tics:
longer than 1 year, these tics have occurred many times each day, nearly
every day or at intervals.
During this time, the patient never goes longer than 3 months without
These symptoms cause marked distress or materially impair work, social
or personal functioning.
The symptoms begin before age 18. Approximately 1% of mainstream schoolchildren
may be affected. Onset occurs with motor tics usually followed by vocal
The symptoms are not directly caused by the effects of a general medical
condition (such as Huntington's disease or a postviral encephalitis)
or substance use (such as a CNS stimulant).
There may be other symptoms, such as mental coprolalia, obsessions,
and compulsions. Other mental disorders are frequently associated
disorders have similar or even the same symptom. The clinician, therefore,
in his diagnostic attempt, has to differentiate against the following
disorders which he needs to rule out to establish a precise diagnosis
cause of Tourette's Disorder is genetic in ost cases. It occurs most
often in boys, and may begin around age 7 or 8. But may not appear until
the child is in his or her late teens or early twenties. It may run
in families. The tics are worse during emotional stress and are absent
reduction may be helpful, including exercise, music and relaxation methods.
Counseling and Psychotherapy [ See
Therapy Section ]:
Counselling and group therapy may prove beneficial.
medications may be helpful in treating Tourette's syndrome.