pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted
range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings, beginning
by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated
by four (or more) of the following:
Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part
of a family almost always chooses solitary activities.
Has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another
person takes pleasure in few, if any, activities.
Lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others.
Shows emotional coldness,
detachment, or flattened affectivity.
Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood
Disorder With Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a
Pervasive Developmental Disorder and is not due to the direct physiological
effects of a general medical condition.
Note: If criteria
are met prior to the onset of Schizophrenia, add "Premorbid,"
e.g., "Schizoid Personality Disorder (Premorbid)."
have similar or even the same symptom. The clinician, therefore,
in his diagnostic attempt has to differentiate against the following
disorders which he needs to rule out to establish a precise diagnosis.
People with schizoid
personality disorder do not have schizophrenia; but it is thought
that many of the same risk factors in schizophrenia may be factors
causing schizoid personality disorder. People with this disorder are
able to function in everyday life, but will not develop meaningful
relationships with others. Controversially, there is some evidence
to indicate that schizoid personality disorder may be the beginning
of schizophrenia, or even a very mild form of it.
People with this
disorder rarely seek treatment. The treatment can be difficult due
to their initial reduced capacity or desire to form a relationship
with a health professional.
and Psychotherapy [ See
Therapy Section ]:
in people with schizoid personality disorder is another potentially
effective form of treatment. Although patients may initially withdraw
from the therapy group, they often become more participatory as a
comfort level is gradually established. Protected by the therapist
who must safeguard schizoids from criticism from other group members,
patients have the opportunity to conquer fears of intimacy by engaging
in communication and making social contact in a supportive atmosphere.
The social consequences
of serious mental disorders—family disruption, loss of employment
and housing—can be calamitous. Comprehensive treatment, which
includes services that exist outside the formal treatment system,
is crucial to ameliorate symptoms, assist recovery, and, to the extent
that these efforts are successful, redress stigma. Consumer self-help
programs, family self-help, advocacy, and services for housing and
vocational assistance complement and supplement the formal treatment
system. Consumers, that is, people who use mental health services
themselves, operate many of these services. The logic behind their
leadership in delivery of these services is that consumers are thought
to be capable of engaging others with mental disorders, serving as
role models, and increasing the sensitivity of service systems to
the needs of people with mental disorders.
Psychopharmacology Section ] :
not usually recommended as treatment for schizoid personality disorder.
However, they are sometimes used for short-term treatment of extreme
anxiety states associated with the disorder.Psychotherapy Individual
therapy that successfully attains a long-term trust level can be useful
in some cases of schizoid personality disorder by providing an outlet
for patients to transform their false perceptions of friendships into
a genuine relationship. As a therapist-client relationship develops,
the patient may begin to reveal imaginary friendships and terrors
of dependency. Individual psychotherapy can gradually effect the formation
of a true relationship between therapist and patient.