a rare disorder characterized by repetitive muscle movements
and vocal outbursts. The main diagnostic criteria is as follows:
At some time during
the illness, though not necessarily at the same time, the patient
has had both of:
At least one vocal tic (A tic is a motor movement or vocalization
that is nonrhythmic, rapid, repeated, stereotyped and sudden)
Multiple motor tics:
longer than 1 year, these tics have occurred many times each day,
nearly every day or at intervals.
During this time, the patient never goes longer than 3 months
without the tics.
These symptoms cause marked distress or materially impair work,
social or personal functioning.
The symptoms begin before age 18. Approximately 1% of mainstream
schoolchildren may be affected. Onset occurs with motor tics usually
followed by vocal tics.
The symptoms are not directly caused by the effects of a general
medical condition (such as Huntington's disease or a postviral
encephalitis) or substance use (such as a CNS stimulant).
There may be other symptoms, such as mental coprolalia, obsessions,
and compulsions. Other mental disorders are frequently associated
disorders have similar or even the same symptom. The clinician,
therefore, in his diagnostic attempt, has to differentiate against
the following disorders which he needs to rule out to establish
a precise diagnosis
cause of Tourette's Disorder is genetic in ost cases. It occurs
most often in boys, and may begin around age 7 or 8. But may not
appear until the child is in his or her late teens or early twenties.
It may run in families. The tics are worse during emotional stress
and are absent during sleep.
reduction may be helpful, including exercise, music and relaxation
Counseling and Psychotherapy [ See
Therapy Section ]:
Counselling and group therapy may prove beneficial.
medications may be helpful in treating Tourette's syndrome.